I use Bryan O’Sullivan’s
mwc-random package for my PRNG (pseudorandom number generator) needs in my Haskell projects.
mwc-random is very fast and generates high quality random numbers. It has a pretty simple API, and gives you several options of initializing the RNG state. One way is to use the
initialize function, which simply takes a list of
Word32 elements and takes the first 256 of them to seed the generator (if less than 256, it fills the rest from a hard-coded list). I’ve discovered that using a simple list of 3 small numbers representing the year, month, and day (e.g.,
[2013, 4, 11]) is not very good as an argument to
initialize, as the generator behaves somewhat similarly to, say, one with slightly different date (e.g.,
[2013, 4, 12]).
I have a program that needs to be seeded on a day-by-day basis, and it must use the current date (year, month, and day only) as the seed; however, I need the seed to be random enough to make the MWC state spit out substantially different random numbers on different, yet similar days. In essence, I need to change
to something that has a much higher quality in terms of randomness.
Enter the SHA-1 Hash Function
Ah, the venerable SHA-1 function. It’s a real gem because you can use it to generate an extremely high-quality 160-bit (20-byte) random number from a given set of bytes; and, even if you change the input by a single byte, it will generate a totally different number. You can think of the SHA-1 hash function as a function that takes a seed and generates a random number — where the seed can be 0 bytes or 123 bytes or whatever size. Thankfully, there is a SHA-1 package available, so I don’t need to write my own correct implementation of SHA-1 (not to mention that only a handful of programmers can even write such code).
To solve my problem, I just take the current date, then feed it to the SHA-1 function to get
sha1Hash; I then then repeatedly call SHA-1 against
sha1Hash recursively. Meanwhile, each time I get a SHA-1 hash of 20 bytes, I append it to an empty string of bytes,
acc is large enough to be split up into 256
Word32 elements, I feed it to
initialize. The result is that I get much better seed-vs-similar-seed randomness with MWC.
Here is the code:
import Data.Bits import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as B import Data.Digest.Pure.SHA import Data.List (foldl') import qualified Data.Vector as V import Data.Word import System.Random.MWC -- ... -- gen <- initialize' $ year' + month' + day' -- ... -- | Given a Word32 'num' generate a growing ByteString 'x' by repeatedly -- generating a SHA1 digest, as a ByteString 'y', and appending it back to -- 'x'. When 'x' is sufficiently large (at least 256 * 4 elements, as each -- element is Word8 and we need 4 of these to get 1 Word32, and ultimately we -- need 256 Word32s), convert it back down to [Word32] and call -- System.Random.MWC's 'initialize' function on it. initialize' :: PrimMonad m => Word32 -> m (Gen (PrimState m)) initialize' num = initialize . V.fromList . loop B.empty . B.pack $ octetsLE num where loop :: B.ByteString -> B.ByteString -> [Word32] loop acc bs | B.length acc >= (256 * 4) = take 256 $ toW32s acc | otherwise = loop (B.append acc $ sha1Bytes bs) (sha1Bytes bs) sha1Bytes :: B.ByteString -> B.ByteString sha1Bytes = bytestringDigest . sha1 toW32s :: B.ByteString -> [Word32] toW32s = map fromOctetsLE . chop 4 . B.unpack chop :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] chop _  =  chop n xs = take n xs : chop n (drop n xs) -- For little-endian conversion. octetsLE :: Word32 -> [Word8] octetsLE w = [ fromIntegral w , fromIntegral (w `shiftR` 8) , fromIntegral (w `shiftR` 16) , fromIntegral (w `shiftR` 24) ] -- For big-endian conversion. octetsBE :: Word32 -> [Word8] octetsBE = reverse . octetsLE fromOctetsBE :: [Word8] -> Word32 fromOctetsBE = foldl' accum 0 where accum a o = (a `shiftL` 8) .|. fromIntegral o fromOctetsLE :: [Word8] -> Word32 fromOctetsLE = fromOctetsBE . reverse
The distinction between big-endianness and little-endianness does not matter at all for purposes of my solution, but I still distinguished them anyway as a reference.↩︎